Since the end of the eighteenth century, the insurance industry has cast a safety net around the world, first in the British Isles and then further afield, irrespective of cultural, political and ideological divides. Unlike previous publications on insurance history, which tend to discuss the development of national markets or individual companies, this book focuses on the creation of networks across borders from the end of the eighteenth century to the present day.
Some Muslims believe insurance is unnecessary, as society should help its victims. "Insurance," however, need not be a commercial venture. In its purest sense, it is assistance with the adverse effects of inevitable afflictions, an arrangement beneficial to all. Schemes to ensure the livelihoods of traders and communities have been in existence for millennia. Commercial insurance on the other hand, was invented ostensibly for the same ends but with the chief beneficiaries being the shareholders and directors. Among the countless revelations Islam passed on, two prohibitions, namely riba (usury) and gharar (risk), have been used by legislators as grounds for the prohibition of insurance. Islam is not against making money, and there is no inherent conflict between the material and the spiritual. Islamic law allows igtehad (initiative) to the benefit of people as long as there is no harm to other people. Muslims can no longer ignore the fact that they live, trade and communicate with open global systems, and they can no longer ignore the need for banking and insurance. There is no prohibition in Islamic law against banking, nor insurance; similarly, Muslims can create insurance schemes that use their faith as the immutable basis for a working model. Aly Khorshid demonstrates how initial clerical apprehensions were overcome to create pioneering Muslim-friendly banking systems, and applies the lessons learnt to a workable insurance framework by which Muslims can compete with non-Muslims in business and have cover in daily life. The book uses relevant Quranic and Sunnah extracts, and the arguments of pro- and anti-insurance jurists to arrive at its conclusion that Muslims can enjoy the peace of mind and equity of an Islamic insurance scheme.
This book explores the central problems underlying the insurance of aviation war and terrorism risks and associated perils. It critically analyses the reasons why conventional insurance markets are unwilling or unable to provide sustainable insurance coverage for aviation war and terrorism risks in the aftermath of catastrophic events such as the terrorist events of September 11, 2001. It also examines some of the prominent concepts proposed and/or implemented after 9/11 to determine whether and to what extent these concepts avoid identified pitfalls. Like many of life's essentials, the importance of insurance is most evident when it is not available. The sheer scale and magnitude of the insurance losses that followed 9/11 caused conventional insurance markets (which hitherto had been offering generous insurance coverage for aviation war and terrorism risks to air transport operators for little or no premium) to withdraw coverage forthwith. The ensuing absence or insufficiency of commercial insurance coverage for aviation war and terrorism risks has sparked a global search for viable and sustainable alternatives. Ten years have since elapsed, and despite numerous efforts, the fundamental problems remain unresolved. The book proceeds on the premise that the underlying issues are not entirely legal in nature; they have immense economic, psychological and policy implications that cannot be underestimated. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore used in examining the issues, drawing heavily upon analytical principles adapted from law and economics and behavioural law and economics. It is hoped that the resulting study will be beneficial not only to lawyers and those interested in aviation insurance but also to economists, air transport insurance program managers, capital market investors and governmental policymakers, both at the national and international levels.
People find salvation in religion, church, charity, group activities, family, nature in their worlds. For Jazmine, the universe gave her salvation through theatre. How Theatre Saved my Life tells the story of Jazmine and how she got involved in theatre while running marathons and studying to be a schoolteacher. In the aftermath of an emotional death, she finds her way back into life as an audience member, crew member, actress, and director of theatrical performances. Jazmine finds her salvation in theatre and happiness being performed inside of her heart. The story of Jazmine is a combination of reality and fiction, as I also found my salvation in the world of theatre. This book is my apology, my life support, and my celebration of life.
The social security systems that, perhaps more than any other governmental programs, have characterized the development of industrial societies are under siege. On the threshold of the twenty-first century, the future of social insurance is uncertain; it may even be seriously threatened.
In this important book, nine leading scholars probe deeply into the nature of social rights, trying to read the near future and locate the most meaningful and effective role that social insurance can play as today's new socioeconomic patterns develop.
In-depth chapters analyse existing systems and recent and ongoing reforms in seven countries--Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, the United States, Japan, Taiwan, and China. There is also a chapter on the European Union's work toward a harmonised scheme to match other programs of integration, and a chapter on the all-important interpenetration of social insurance and human rights. The authors clearly demonstrate that the unprecedented challenges faced by social insurance today arise not only from changes in the patterns of society, but also from lack of confidence and ideological prejudice on the part of both academia and public policy.
As a major analysis of why and how a great milestone in human progress is faltering under contemporary pressures, this book is of enormous value. It deserves to be read and absorbed by all professionals in the field who want to use their knowledge and skill to ensure a future in which every man, woman, and child is provided with opportunity to live as full a life as possible.