Statistics published by the U. S. Department of Commerce (1980) indicate that in 1977 we spent 8. 1% of our gross national product (GNP) on life, health, property-casualty, and other forms of insurance. An additional 5. 7% was used to pay the Social Security tax, which is another form of insurance premium, for a total of 14. 8% of the GNP. Although insurance had its historical origin in marine insurance, it has now developed into one of the major industries of the American economy and extends into many areas of economic activity. One area where growth has been particularly strong is the medical sector. Health insurance is a major institution in all industrialized countries. It became a government responsibility in 1883 when Bismarck intro- duced a compulsory program of health insurance for industrial workers in Germany. Programs for workers in various industrial and income categories soon followed in other European countries-Austria (1888), Hungary (1891), Norway (1909), Servia (1910), Great Britain (1911), and Russia and Romania (1912) (Rubinow, 1913:250). Programs in these countries were extended in subsequent years, and other countries in Europe followed with their own programs. Consequently, today most industrial countries have universal or near-universal health insurance coverage. In the United States the issue of national health insurance has been seriously debated since just prior to World War I, and polling data since the 1930s show that a substantial majority of the public has been supportive of such a program (Erskine, 1975).
Discover the essential tool to prepare for a career in medical insurance billing -- UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INSURANCE, 13E. This comprehensive, easy-to-understand, updated book presents the latest code sets and guidelines. You cover today's most important topics, such as managed care, legal and regulatory issues, coding systems, reimbursement methods, medical necessity, and common health insurance plans. Updates introduce new legislation that impacts health care, including the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare); ICD-10-CM coding; electronic health records; Medicaid Integrity Contractors; case mix management; hospital-acquired conditions; present on admission; and value-based purchasing. Practice exercises and the workbook (available separately) provides application-based assignments and case studies to reinforce your understanding, as well as CMRS, CPC-P, and CPB Mock Exams. New editions include online access to SimClaim CMS-1500 claims completion software and Optum's EncoderPro.com Expert.
Congress has seen a renewed interest in the market for private health insurance since the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). This book provides an overview of private-sector (as opposed to government-provided) health insurance. It serves as an introduction to health insurance from the point of view of many consumers under the age of 65. Furthermore, the book provides background information about modifying or building on the current health insurance system; discusses how understanding the potential impact of such proposals requires a working knowledge of how health insurance is provided, purchased, and regulated; and describes various ACA provisions that affect the private insurance market.
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Marine Insurance is considered one of the oldest of the many forms of commercial protection. It has flourished through the establishment of the institution of the ''coffee-houses'', wherein ''underwriting" was being conducted and from where the evolution and dominance of the Lloyd's has stemmed as the world's most famous insurance market. Marine insurance contracts are special in that they have special characteristics and also be cause they are contracts of indemnity. This book examines the principle of indemnity within marine in surance contracts. The legal problems related to the principle, in theory and in practice, are discussed and evaluated through the citation and criti cal analysis of the relevant case law in England as well in some of the most representative common law and continental law jurisdictions, together with an analysis comprising thoughts and proposals on possible extensions, fur ther research options, and a possible fiiture law reform. The book comprises of six (6) chapters: chapter one (1) discusses the history of marine insurance in England and the policy reasoning behind the enactment of the various English statutes as well as the history, legal framework and the way marine insurance is regulated in the other jurisdic tions. Chapter two (2) discusses the concept and importance of insurable interest in relation to indemnity marine insurance contracts and the cove rage offered under such contracts both in England and in the other legal systems."